Monthly Archives: May 2016

Today in History – May 20

0325 – The Ecumenical council was inaugurated by Emperor Constantine in Nicea, Asia Minor.

1303 – A peace treaty was signed between England and France over the town of Gascony.

1347 – Cola di Rienzo took the title of tribune in Rome.

1506 – In Spain, Christopher Columbus died in poverty.

1520 – Hernando Cortez defeated Spanish troops that had been sent to punish him in Mexico.

1690 – England passed the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.

1674 – John Sobieski became Poland’s first King.

1774 – Britain’s Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the American colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior

1775 – North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence. This is the date that is on the George state flag even though the date of this event has been questioned.

1784 – The Peace of Versailles ended a war between France, England, and Holland.

1830 – The fountain pen was patented by H.D. Hyde.

1861 – North Carolina became the eleventh state to secede from the Union.

1861 – During the American Civil War, the capital of the Confederacy was moved from Montgomery, AL, to Richmond, VA.

1873 – Levi Strauss began marketing blue jeans with copper rivets.

1875 – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures was established.

1899 – Jacob German of New York City became the first driver to be arrested for speeding. The posted speed limit was 12 miles per hour.

1902 – The U.S. military occupation of Cuba ended.

1902 – Cuba gained its independence from Spain.

1916 – Norman Rockwell’s first cover on “The Saturday Evening Post” appeared.

1926 – The U.S. Congress passed the Air Commerce Act. The act gave the Department of Commerce the right to license pilots and planes.

1927 – Charles Lindbergh took off from New York to cross the Atlantic for Paris aboard his airplane the “Spirit of St. Louis.” The trip took 33 1/2 hours.

1930 – The first airplane was catapulted from a dirigible.

1932 – Amelia Earhart took off to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She became the first woman to achieve the feat.

1933 – “Charlie Chan” was heard for the final time on the NBC Blue radio network, after only six months on the air.

1939 – The first telecast over telephone wires was sent from Madison Square Garden to the NBC-TV studios at 30 Rockefeller Center in Manhattan. The event was a bicycle race.

1939 – The first regular air-passenger service across the Atlantic Ocean began with the take-off of the “Yankee Clipper” from Port Washington, New York.

1941 – Germany invaded Crete by air.

1942 – Japan completed the conquest of Burma.

1961 – A white mob attacked the Freedom Riders in Montgomery, AL. The event prompted the federal government to send U.S. marshals.

1969 – U.S. and South Vietnamese forces captured Apbia Mountain, which was referred to as Hamburger Hill.

1970 – 100,000 people marched in New York supporting U.S. policies in Vietnam.

1978 – Mavis Hutchinson, at age 53, became the first woman to run across America. It took Hutchinson 69 days to run the 3,000 miles.

1980 – The submarine Nautilus was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior.

1982 – TV’s “Barney Miller” was seen for the last time on ABC-TV.

1985 – The Dow Jones industrial average broke the 1300 mark for the first time. The Dow closed at 1304.88.

1985 – The FBI arrested U.S. Navy Chief Petty Officer John Walker. Walker had begun spying for the Soviet Union in 1968.

1985 – Radio Marti was launched.

1990 – The Hubble Space Telescope sent back its first photographs.

1993 – The final episode of “Cheers” was aired on NBC-TV.

1996 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Colorado measure banning laws that would protect homosexuals from discrimination.

1999 – At Heritage High School in Conyers, GA, a 15-year-old student shot and injured six students. He then surrendered to an assistant principal at the school.

2010 – Scientists announced that they had created a functional synthetic genome.

2010 – Five paintings worth 100 million Euro were stolen from the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.


The Pajama Boy White House

Victor Davis Hanson on THE PAJAMA BOY WHITE HOUSE:

In a case of life imitating art, Ethan Krupp, the Organizing for Action employee who posed for the ad, offered a self-portrait of himself that confirmed the photo image. He is a self-described “liberal f***.” “A liberal f*** is not a Democrat, but rather someone who combines political data and theory, extreme leftist views, and sarcasm to win any argument while making the opponents feel terrible about themselves,” he explains. “I won every argument but one.” I suspect that when Krupp boasts about “making opponents feel terrible about themselves,” he is referring to people of his own kind rather than trying such verbal intimidation on the local mechanic or electrician.The ad was no right-wing caricature of an urban twerp. Through photo, text, and commentary, Krupp confirmed the self-portrait of an in-your-face adolescent who somehow ended up with his 15 minutes of notoriety.

Krupp is emblematic of an entire class of young smart-asses found in Silicon Valley, on campuses across the nation, and in Hollywood, and now ensconced at the highest levels of American government and journalism.

Including — but not limited to — Ben Rhodes, Jon Favreau, Jon Lovett, Jonathan Gruber, and Josh Earnest. “Who hires and promotes Pajama Boys?”, VDH asks “Why, of course, Barack Obama, the Pajama Boy in Chief.”

Read the whole thing.

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Today in History – May 19

1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier set sail for North America.

1536 – Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England’s King Henry VIII, was beheaded after she was convicted of adultery.

1568 – After being defeated by the Protestants, Mary the Queen of Scots, fled to England where she was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth.

1588 – The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon, bound for England.

1608 – The Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists.

1643 – Delegates from four New England colonies met in Boston to form a confederation.

1643 – The French army defeated a Spanish army at Rocroi, France.

1796 – The first U.S. game law was approved. The measure called for penalties for hunting or destroying game within Indian territory.

1847 – The first English-style railroad coach was placed in service on the Fall River Line in Massachusetts.

1856 – U.S. Senator Charles Sumner spoke out against slavery.

1857 – The electric fire alarm system was patented by William F. Channing and Moses G. Farmer.

1858 – A pro-slavery band led by Charles Hameton executed unarmed Free State men near Marais des Cygnes on the Kansas-Missouri border.

1864 – The Union and Confederate armies launched their last attacks against each other at Spotsylvania in Virginia.

1906 – The Federated Boys’ Clubs, forerunner of the Boys’ Clubs of America, were organized.

1911 – The first American criminal conviction that was based on fingerprint evidence occurred in New York City.

1912 – The Associated Advertising Clubs of America held its first convention in Dallas, TX.

1921 – The U.S. Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, which established national quotas for immigrants.

1926 – Thomas Edison spoke on the radio for the first time.

1926 – Benito Mussolini announced that democracy was deceased. Rome became a fascist state.

1926 – In Damascus, Syria, French shells killed 600 people.

1928 – The first frog-jumping jubilee held in Calaveras County, CA.

1935 – T.E. Lawrence “Lawrence of Arabia” died from injuries in a motorcycle crash in England.

1935 – The National Football League (NFL) adopted an annual college draft to begin in 1936.

1943 – Winston Churchill told the U.S. Congress that his country was pledging their full support in the war against Japan.

1958 – Canada and the U.S. formally established the North American Air Defense Command.

1962 – Marilyn Monroe performed a sultry rendition of “Happy Birthday” for U.S. President John F. Kennedy. The event was a fund-raiser at New York’s Madison Square Garden.

1964 – The U.S. State Department reported that diplomats had found about 40 microphones planted in the U.S. Embassy in Moscow.

1967 – The Soviet Union ratified a treaty with the United States and Britain that banned nuclear weapons from outer space.

1974 – Erno Rubik invented the puzzle what would later become known as the Rubik’s Cube.

1967 – U.S. planes bombed Hanoi for the first time.

1981 – The Empire State Building was designated a New York City Landmark.

1988 – In Jacksonville, FL, Carlos Lehder Rivas was convicted of smuggling more than three tons of cocaine into the United States. Rivas was the co-founder of Colombia’s Medellin drug cartel.

1989 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average passed 2,500 for the first time. The close for the day was 2,501.1.

1992 – U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle criticized the CBS sitcom “Murphy Brown” for having its title character decide to bear a child out of wedlock.

1992 – In Massapequa, NY, Mary Jo Buttafuoco was shot and seriously wounded by Amy Fisher. Fisher was her husband Joey’s teen-age lover.

1992 – The 27th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution went into effect. The amendment prohibits Congress from giving itself midterm pay raises.

1993 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed about 3,500 (3,500.03) for the first time.

1998 – In Russia, strikes broke out over unpaid wages.

1998 – Bandits stole three of Rome’s most important paintings from the National Gallery of Modern Art.

1999 – “Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace” was released in the U.S. It set a new record for opening day sales at 28.5 million.
Today in Star Wars History

1999 – Rosie O’Donnell and Tom Selleck got into an uncomfortable verbal issue concerning gun control on O’Donnell’s talk show.

2000 – The bones of the most complete and best-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton went on display in Chicago.

2000 – Disney released the movie “Dinosaur.”
Disney movies, music and books

2003 – It was announced that Worldcom Inc. would pay investors $500 million to settle civil fraud charges over its $11 billion accounting scandal.

2003 – Hundreds of Albert Einstein’s scientific papers, personal letters and humanist essays were make available on the Internet. Einstein had given the papers to the Hebrew Universtiy of Jerusalem in his will.

2005 – “Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith” brought in 50.0 million in its opening day.

2013 – The Yahoo board approved the $1.1 billion purchase of the blogging site Tumblr.


Today in History – May 15

1602 – Cape Cod was discovered by Bartholomew Gosnold.

1614 – An aristocratic uprising in France ended with the treaty of St.Menehould.

1618 – Johannes Kepler discovered his harmonics law.

1702 – The War of Spanish Succession began.

1768 – Under the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.

1795 – Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan.

1849 – Neapolitan troops entered Palermo, and were in possession of Sicily.

1856 – Lyman Frank Baum, author of “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz,” was born.

1862 – The U.S. Congress created the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1911 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of Standard Oil Company, ruling it was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

1916 – U.S. Marines landed in Santo Domingo to quell civil disorder.

1918 – Regular airmail service between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC, began under the direction of the Post Office Department, which later became the U.S. Postal Service.

1926 – Roald Amundsen and Lincoln Ellsworth were forced down in Alaska after a four-day flight over an icecap. Ice had begun to form on the dirigible Norge.

1926 – The New York Rangers were officially granted a franchise in the NHL. The NHL also announced that Chicago and Detroit would be joining the league in November.

1930 – Ellen Church became the first female flight attendant.

1940 – Nylon stockings went on sale for the first time in the U.S.

1941 – Joe DiMaggio began his historic major league baseball hitting streak of 56 games.

1942 – Gasoline rationing began in the U.S. The limit was 3 gallons a week for nonessential vehicles.

1948 – Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon only hours after declaring its independence.

1951 – AT&T became the first corporation to have one million stockholders.

1957 – Britain dropped its first hydrogen bomb on Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean.

1958 – Sputnik III, the first space laboratory, was launched in the Soviet Union.

1963 – The last Project Mercury space flight was launched.

1964 – The Smothers Brothers, Dick and Tom, gave their first concert in Carnegie Hall in New York City.

1970 – U.S. President Nixon appointed America’s first two female generals.

1970 – Phillip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green, two black students at Jackson State University in Mississippi, were killed when police opened fire during student protests.

1972 – Alabama Gov. George C. Wallace was shot by Arthur Bremer in Laurel, MD while campaigning for the U.S. presidency. Wallace was paralyzed by the shot.

1975 – The merchant ship U.S. Mayaguez was recaptured from Cambodia’s Khmer Rouge.

1980 – The first transcontinental balloon crossing of the United States took place.

1983 – In Boston,MA, the Madison Hotel was destroyed by implosion.

1988 – The Soviet Union began their withdrawal of its 115,000 troops from Afghanistan. Soviet forces had been there for more than eight years.

1990 – Vincent Van Gogh’s “Portrait of Doctor Gachet” was sold for $82.5 million. The sale set a new world record.

1997 – The Space shuttle Atlantis blasted off on a mission to deliver urgently needed repair equipment and a fresh American astronaut to Russia’s orbiting Mir station.

1999 – The Russian parliament was unable a attain enough votes to impeach President Boris Yeltsin.

2014 – The National September 11 Memorial Museum was dedicated in New York City.


Today in History – May 14

1264 – King Henry III was captured by his brother in law Simon deMontfort at the Battle of Lewes in France.

1509 – In the Battle of Agnadello, French defeated Venitians in Northern Italy.

1607 – An expedition led by Captain Christopher Newport went ashore at Jamestown, Virginia. The group had arrived at the location the day before. This became the first permanent English colony in America.

1610 – French King Henri IV (Henri de Navarre) was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac.

1643 – Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.

1727 – Thomas Gainsborough was born. He was an English painter.

1787 – Delegates began gathering in Philadelphia for a convention to draw up the U.S. Constitution.

1796 – The first smallpox vaccination was given by Edward Jenner.

1804 – William Clark set off the famous expedition from Camp Dubois. A few days later, in St. Louis, Meriwether Lewis joined the group. The group was known as the “Corps of Discovery.”

1811 – Paraguay gained independence from Spain.

1853 – Gail Borden applied for a patent for condensed milk.

1862 – The chronograph was patented by Adolphe Nicole.

1874 – McGill University and Harvard met at Cambridge, MA, for the first college football game to charge admission.

1878 – The name Vaseline was registered by Robert A. Chesebrough.

1879 – Thomas Edison incorporated the Edison Telephone Company of Europe.

1897 – “The Stars and Stripes Forever” by John Phillip Sousa was performed for the first time. It was at a ceremony where a statue of George Washington was unveiled.

1897 – Guglielmo Marconi made the first communication by wireless telegraph.

1904 – In St. Louis, the Olympic games were held. It was the first time for the games to be played in the U.S.

1913 – The Rockefeller Foundation was created by John D. Rockefeller with a gift of $100,000,000.

1935 – The Philippines ratified an independence agreement.

1940 – The Netherlands surrendered to Nazi Germany.

1942 – The Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) was established by an act of the U.S. Congress.

1942 – “Lincoln Portrait” by Aaron Copland was performed for the first time by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra.

1942 – The British, while retreating from Burma, reached India.

1948 – Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the independent State of Israel as British rule in Palestine came to an end.

1955 – The Warsaw Pact, a Easter European mutual-defense treaty, was signed in Poland by eight communist bloc countries including the Soviet Union.

1961 – A bus carrying Freedom Riders was bombed and burned in Alabama.

1969 – Jacqueline Susann’s second novel, “The Love Machine,” was published by Simon and Schuster.

1973 – Skylab One was launched into orbit around Earth as the first U.S. manned space station.

1975 – U.S. forces raided the Cambodian island of Koh Tang and recaptured the American merchant ship Mayaguez. All 40 crew members were released safely by Cambodia. About 40 U.S. servicemen were killed in the military operation.

1980 – U.S. President Carter inaugurated the Department of Health and Human Services.

1985 – The first McDonald’s restaurant became the first fast-food business museum. It is located in Des Plaines, Illinois.

1988 – In the Andean village of Cayara, Peru’s military was involved in a massacre of at least 26 peasants.

1992 – Former Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev addressed members of the U.S. Congress, appealing to them to pass a bill to aid the people of the former Soviet Union.

1996 – A tornado hit 80 villages in nothern Bangladesh. More than 440 people were killed.

1998 – The Associated Press marked its 150th anniversary.

1998 – The final episode of the TV series “Seinfeld” aired after nine years on NBC.

1999 – North Korea returned the remains of six U.S. soldiers that had been killed during the Korean War.

1999 – Jess Marlow received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

2005 – The art exhibit “Gumby and Friends: The First 50 Years” opened at the Lynn House Gallery in Antioch, CA.


Today in History – May 11

0330 – Constantinople, previously the town of Byzantium, was founded.

1573 – Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.

1647 – Peter Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor.

1689 – French and English naval battle takes place at Bantry Bay.

1745 – French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.

1792 – The Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray.

1812 – British prime Minster Spencer Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of Commons.

1816 – The American Bible Society was formed in New York City.

1857 – Indian mutineers seized Delhi from the British.

1858 – Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.

1860 – Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala, Sicily.

1889 – Major Joseph Washington Wham takes charge of $28,000 in gold and silver to pay troops at various points in the Arizona Territory. The money was stolen in a train robbery.

1894 – Workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company in Illinois went on strike.

1910 – Glacier National Park in Montana was established.

1927 – The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was founded.

1934 – A severe two-day dust storm stripped the topsoil from the great plains of the U.S. and created a “Dust Bowl.” The storm was one of many.

1944 – A major offensive was launched by the allied forces in central Italy.

1947 – The creation of the tubeless tire was announced by the B.F. Goodrich Company.

1949 – Siam changed its name to Thailand.

1960 – Israeli soldiers captured Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires.

1967 – The siege of Khe Sanh ended.

1985 – More than 50 people died when a flash fire swept a soccer stadium in Bradford, England.

1995 – The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was extended indefinitely. The treaty limited the spread of nuclear material for military purposes.

1996 – An Atlanta-bound ValuJet DC-9 caught fire shortly after takeoff from Miami and crashed into the Florida Everglades. All 110 people on board were killed.

1997 – Garry Kasparov, world chess champion, lost his first ever multi-game match. He lost to IBM’s chess computer Deep Blue. It was the first time a computer had beaten a world-champion player.

1998 – India conducted its first underground nuclear tests, three of them, in 24 years. The tests were in violation of a global ban on nuclear testing.

1998 – A French mint produced the first coins of Europe’s single currency. The coin is known as the euro.

2001 – U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft announced his decision to approve a 30-day delay of the execution of convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh. McVeigh had been scheduled to be executed on May 16, 2001. The delay was because the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had failed to disclose thousands of documents to McVeigh’s defense team. (Oklahoma)


History behind Dos de Mayo and Cinco de Mayo

Napoleon made an alliance with the Muslim Ottoman Empire in 1806 and Persia in 1807.

In 1807, Napoleon invaded Spain.

1When Spaniards revolted in Madrid, Napoleon brought in the Muslim Mameluke cavalry.

On “DOS DE MAYO,” 1808, the Muslim cavalry charged into the crowd, hacking with scimitar swords, and crushing the Spanish resistance.

Napoleon then installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain.

Catholic Spanish America questioned the legitimacy of loyalty to the Spanish Empire with a secular French monarch on the throne.

2Beginning in 1810, Spanish America began to declare independence from French-controlled Spain.

Simon Bolivar led Venezuela, Colombia (which included Panama), Ecuador, Peru (with Don José de San Martín), and Bolivia (named after him) to become independent from Spain.

A Constitution was written similar to that of the United States to create a ‘Gran Columbia’ of former Spanish States.

It fell apart when Simon Bolivar insisted on being president for life.

U.S. President William Henry Harrison stated in his Inaugural Address, March 4, 1841:

“This is the old trick of those who would usurp the government of their country. In the name of democracy they speak, warning the people against the influence of wealth and the danger of aristocracy.

History, ancient and modern, is full of such examples… Bolivar possessed himself of unlimited power with the title of his country’s liberator.”

3Contrary to North America, where for a century and a half prior to its independence citizens had been schooled by pastors and church leaders in self-government, Simon Bolivar accused Spain of having kept the people of New Spain for centuries under a “triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice” and therefore any new government “will require an infinitely firm hand.”

In Mexico, September 16, 1810, a priest named Miguel Hidalgo, gave a speech, “The Cry of Dolores”, calling people to revolt against the Napoleon-controlled Spanish elites.

Hidalgo gathered nearly 90,000 poor farmers, but they were defeated at the Battle of Calderon Bridge in 1811. Hidalgo was executed.

The Revolution continued until Mexico gained its independence in 1821, but rather than setting up a constitutional republic like the United States, Agustín de Iturbide set up a Mexican Empire where he ruled as Emperor.

In the next 36 years, Mexico struggled through 50 different governments.

Santa Anna finally laid aside Mexico’s Constitution and made himself dictator, as he had told the U.S. minister to Mexico Joel R. Poinsett:

“A hundred years to come my people will not be fit for liberty… A despotism is the proper government for them, but there is no reason why it should not be a wise and virtuous one.”

Santa Ana exiled a young leader who challenged his power in 1853 named Benito Juárez.

The next year, Benito Juárez returned to lead the Revolution of Ayutla ousting Santa Anna.

Originally, the Church saw its political responsibility as being a conscience to the elites, reminding them to treat the poor fairly as someday they too will face judgement.

Gradually, political revolutionaries began to accuse the Church as being somehow complicit in maintaining the status quo.

In 1856, backed by freemason leaders, Benito Juárez and others led a War of Reform against the church.

Religious orders were suppressed, church property was confiscated and religious clergy were denied rights.

Once he became President, Benito Juárez stopped paying interest on Mexico’s debt to Spain, Great Britain and France in 1861.

This resulted in those countries planning an invasion of Mexico.

With the United States occupied in a Civil War, French troops landed in Mexico in 1862, being supported by various indigenous communities, financial leaders and church leaders.

On MAY 5, 1862 – “CINCO DE MAYO” – the French Army suffered a minor setback at the Battle of Puebla.

The French went on to capture Mexico City, Guadalajara, Zacatecas. Acapulco. Durango, Sinaloa and Jalisco.

Numerous Mexican leaders traveled to Europe to plead with Maximillian I to come to Mexico and restore order.

Maximillian was the brother of Emperor Franz Josef, one of the world’s most powerful leaders.

He ruled the Austro-Hungarian Empire – which, after Russia, was the largest empire in Europe, consisting of:

Austria, Hungary, Bohemia (Czech), Croatia, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and parts of Serbia, Romania, Italy, Montenegro, Poland and Ukraine.

Emperor Franz Joseph later met Theodore Roosevelt in 1910.

When Emperor Franz Joseph’s nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914, it began World War I.

Maximillian had a reputation for liberal ideas and progressive reform in favor of common people.

Maximillian spoke six languages and was commander of the Austrian Navy, sending out the first Austrian ship to circumnavigate the globe.

Maximillian was supported in coming to Mexico by Mexican leaders, led by José Pablo Martínez del Río.

Maximillian had the blessing of Pope Pius IX, and the backing of England’s Queen Victoria and France’s Napoleon III.

Maximillian arrived at Veracruz on May 21, 1864, to enthusiastic crowds.

He created an avenue through the center of Mexico City – known now as the famous boulevard, Paseo de la Reforma.

Maximillian’s wife, Carlota, was shocked by the living conditions of the poor so she raised money from wealthy Mexicans to help poor houses.

Maximilian immediately abolished child labor and reduced working hour for laborers.

He canceled all debts for peasants over 10 pesos, restored communal property and broke the monopoly of Hacienda stores.

He forbade all forms of corporal punishment and decreed that poor people could no longer be bought and sold for the price of their debt.

To the dismay of wealthy, Maximilian upheld liberal policies of land reforms, religious freedom, and extended the right to vote beyond the landholding class.

The United States Government, after the Civil War, did not want European powers in the western hemisphere, as stated in the Monroe Doctrine, so it put diplomatic pressure on Napoleon III to abandon support of Maximillian and withdraw French troops from Mexico.

The U.S. then began secretly supplying guns to the Mexican gangs, conveniently ‘losing’ arms and ammunition by leaving them at El Paso del Norte near the Mexican border.

With the threat of a U.S. invasion backing Benito Juárez, Maximilian’s supporters began to abandon him.

Maximillian’s wife, Carlota, went to Europe desperate for help but was denied everywhere and suffered an emotional collapse.

Napoleon III urged Maximillian to flee Mexico, but he refused to desert his followers, knowing the fate they would suffer.

Maximillian let his followers decide whether or not he should abdicate.

Faithful Mexican generals Miguel Miramon, Leonardo Márquez, and Tomás Mejía fought with an army of 8,000 Mexican loyalists.

In 1867, they withdrew to Santiago de Querétaro, but Colonel Miguel López was bribed to open a gate to let a raiding party in.

Maximilian was captured.

Leaders around the world begged for Maximillian to be spared, including eminent liberals Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi who sent telegrams and letters to Benito Juárez pleading for his life.

Benito Juárez refused and had Maximillian shot to death on June 19, 1867.

Maximillian’s last words were:

“I forgive everyone, and I ask everyone to forgive me. May my blood which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. Viva Mexico, viva la independencia!”

Benito Juárez died of a heart attack five years later after putting down a revolt by a young leader who challenged his power named Porfirio Diaz.

Porfirio Diaz was President till there was a revolt led by a young leader who challenged his power named Francisco Madero.

Madero was murdered in a coup d’Etat in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta, which started another civil war.

A reflective quote on the contrasting stability of the United States is from the 13th President Millard Fillmore, December 6, 1852:

“Our grateful thanks are due to an all-merciful Providence…

Our own free institutions were not the offspring of our Revolution.

They existed before.

They were planted in the free charters of self-government under which the English colonies grew up…

(Other) nations have had no such training for self-government, and every effort to establish it by bloody revolutions has been, and must without that preparation continue to be, a failure.

Liberty unregulated by law degenerates into anarchy, which soon becomes the most horrid of all despotisms…

We owe these blessings, under Heaven, to the happy Constitution and Government which were bequeathed to us by our fathers, and which it is our sacred duty to transmit in all their integrity to our children.”

h/t Bill Federer