0313 – Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.
1250 – King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars.
1527 – Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
1725 – Spain withdrew from Quadruple Alliance.
1789 – George Washington took office as first elected U.S. president.
1803 – The U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million.
1812 – Louisiana admitted as the 18th U.S. state.
1849 – The republican patriot and guerrilla leader Giuseppe Garabaldi repulsed a French attack on Rome.
1864 – Work began on the Dams along the Red River. The work would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
1889 – George Washington’s inauguration became the first U.S. national holiday.
1900 – Hawaii was organized as an official U.S. territory.
1900 – Casey Jones was killed while trying to save the runaway train “Cannonball Express.”
1930 – The Soviet Union proposed a military alliance with France and Great Britain.
1938 – Happy Rabbit appeared in the cartoon “Porky’s Hare Hunt.” This rabbit would later evolve into Bugs Bunny.
1939 – The first railroad car equipped with fluorescent lights was put into service. The train car was known as the “General Pershing Zephyr.”
1939 – Lou Gehrig played his last game with the New York Yankees.
1940 – Belle Martell was licensed in California by state boxing officials. She was the first American woman, prizefight referee.
1943 – The British submarine HMS Seraph dropped ‘the man who never was,’ a dead man the British planted with false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
1945 – Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide. They had been married for one day. One week later Germany surrendered unconditionally.
1945 – Arthur Godfrey began his CBS radio morning show “Arthur Godfrey Time.” It ran until this day in 1972.
1947 – The name of Boulder Dam, in Nevada, was changed back to Hoover Dam.
1948 – The Organization of American States held its first meeting in Bogota, Colombia.
1953 – The British West Indian colonies agreed on the formation of the British Caribbean Federation that would eventually become a self-governing unit in the British Commonwealth.
1964 – The FCC ruled that all TV receivers should be equipped to receive both VHF and UHF channels.
1968 – U.S. Marines attacked a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do.
1970 – U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by U.S. President Nixon led to widespread protests.
1972 – The North Vietnamese launched an invasion of the South.
1973 – U.S. President Nixon announced resignation of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and other top aides.
1975 – Communists North Vietnamese troops entered the Independence Palace of South Vietnam in Saigon. 11 Marines lifted off of the U.S. Embassy were the last soldiers to evacuate.
1980 – Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London.
1984 – U.S. President Reagan signed cultural and scientific agreements with China. He also signed a tax accord that would make it easier for American companies to operate in China.
1991 – An estimated 125,000 people were killed in a cyclone that hit Bangladesh.
1993 – Monica Seles was stabbed in the back during a tennis match in Hamburg, Germany. The man called himself a fan of second- ranked Steffi Graf. He was convicted of causing grievous bodily harm and received a suspended sentence.
1998 – NATO was expanded to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The three nations were formally admitted the following April at NATO’s 50th anniversary summit.
1998 – United and Delta airlines announced their alliance that would give them control of 1/3 of all U.S. passenger seats.
1998 – In the U.S., Federal regulators fined a contractor $2.25 million for improper handling of oxygen canisters on ValuJet that crashed in the Florida Everglades in 1996.
2002 – Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf was overwhelmingly approved for another five years as president.