Today in History – November 14

• 1666, the first blood transfusion took place, in London. Blood from one dog was transfused into another

• 1770, James Bruce discovers what he believes to be the source of the Nile

• 1832, the first horse-drawn streetcar made its appearance in New York City

• 1851, Herman Melville’s novel “Moby-Dick; Or, The Whale” was first published in the United States

• 1862, during the American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln approves General Ambrose Burnside’s plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, leading to the Battle of Fredericksburg

• 1881, Charles J. Guiteau went on trial for assassinating President James A. Garfield. (Guiteau was convicted and hanged the following year.)

• 1889, pioneering female journalist Nellie Bly (aka Elizabeth Cochrane) begins a successful attempt to travel around the world in less than 80 days. She completes the trip in seventy-two days

• 1910, aviator Eugene Ely performs the first take off from a ship in Hampton Roads, Virginia. He took off from a makeshift deck on the USS Birmingham in a Curtiss pusher

• 1922, the BBC begins radio service in the United Kingdom

• 1941, during World War II: In Slonim, German forces engaged in Operation Barbarossa murdered 9000 Jews in a single day

• 1965, during the Vietnam War: The Battle of the Ia Drang begins the first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces

• 1967, American physicist Theodore Maiman is given a patent for his ruby laser systems, the world’s first laser

• 1972, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above the 1,000 level for the first time, ending the day at 1,003.16

• 1979, during the Iran hostage crisis: US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive order 12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis

• 1982, Lech Walesa, the leader of Poland’s outlawed Solidarity movement, is released after eleven months of internment near the Soviet border

• 1991, American and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials in connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103

• 1995, a budget standoff between Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. Congress forces the federal government to temporarily close national parks and museums and to run most government offices with skeleton staffs

• 2001, President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin continued their talks at Bush’s Texas ranch, a day after the two leaders agreed at the White House to reduce their countries’ nuclear stockpiles

• 2003, an Alabama jury ordered Exxon Mobil to pay the state $11.8 billion in damages relating to gas royalties for offshore drilling projects. The jury also awarded compensatory damages of $63.6 million

• 2007, the last direct-current electrical distribution system in the United States is shut down in New York City by Con Edison.

• 2010, an auction of imprisoned swindler Bernie Madoff’s possessions in New York brought in about $2 million for the victims of his $65 billion Ponzi scheme

• 2012, the Pew Hispanic Center said it analyzed Census Bureau data, Election Day 2012 exit polls and a new nationwide survey of Hispanics and concluded that the record number of Latinos who voted for U.S. president would likely double in a generation

• 2013, reversing course, President Barack Obama said millions of Americans should be allowed to renew individual coverage plans ticketed for cancellation under the health care law. ALSO: Former Boston crime boss James “Whitey” Bulger was led off to prison to begin serving a life sentence at 84 for his murderous reign in the 1970s and ’80s

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