Today in History….October 23

On this day in . . .

  425, Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6 

  1642, Battle of Edgehill: first major battle of the First English Civil War 

  1812, Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he was now the commandant of Paris. de Malet is executed on October 29

  1855, Kansas Free State forces set up a competing government under their Topeka, Kansas, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory

  1861, President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases

  1911, first use of aircraft in war: an Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Turco-Italian War

  1915, woman’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote

  1929, after a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic. ALSO: The first North American transcontinental air service begins between New York City and Los Angeles, California

  1930, the first miniature golf tournament was completed in Chattanooga, Tennessee

  1941, Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations designed to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the German armies from capturing Moscow 

  1942, the Second Battle of El Alamein, in northern Egypt, starts; the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begin a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt, never to return

  1944, the Battle of Leyte Gulf begins. It was the largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines; and also, the Soviet Red Army enters Hungary

  1946, the United Nations General Assembly convened for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing Meadow, New York

  1956, a student-sparked revolt against Hungary’s Communist rule began; as the revolution spread, Soviet forces started entering the country, and the uprising was put down within weeks

  1973, President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal. ALSO: A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria

  1983, practitioners of that “religion of peace” use a a truck bomb to attack the U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut, killing 241 U.S. Marines. Also: A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops

  1989, Hungarian Republic is officially declared by president Matyas Szu”ros, replacing the communist Hungarian People’s Republic

  1992, Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil

  1998, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat, ym”sh, reach a “land for peace” agreement

  1999, 16 members of the Ku Klux Klan held a silent rally in New York City as thousands of counter-demonstrators jeered them

  2001, the Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks 

  2002, Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage

  2007, evacuations due to out-of-control wildfires in Southern California topped 500,000; President Bush declared a federal emergency for seven counties

  2008, badgered by lawmakers on the House Oversight Committee, former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan denied the nation’s economic crisis was his fault but conceded the meltdown had revealed a flaw in a lifetime of economic thinking and left him in a “state of shocked disbelief.”

  2012, a father in Hangzhou, China, was sentenced to five years in prison for selling his 27-day-old baby for $10,300 to pay off debts. ALSO: Former Penn State football assistant Jerry Sandusky was transferred to a Pennsylvania state prison from the county jail where he’d been held since his conviction on child molestation charges

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