Today in History…..October 22

On this day in . . .

• 1520, Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan

• 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate that in effect rules Japan until the mid-nineteenth century

• 1774, first display of the word “Liberty” on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts in defiance of British rule in Colonial America

• 1805: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Vice Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signals almost the end of French maritime power and leaves Britain’s navy unchallenged until the twentieth century. ALSO: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grand Army of Napoleon at the Battle of Ulm. 30,000 prisoners are captured and 10,000 casualties inflicted on the losers

• 1879, using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13.5 hours before burning out)

• 1933, Adolf Hitler, ym”sh, withdraws Nazi Germany from the League of Nations

• 1944, the first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200 kilograms (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began

• 1959, in New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens to the public. ALSO: President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA

• 1967, during the Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, D.C.

• 1973, Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.

• 1975, Game 6 of the World Series is played between the Boston Red Sox and Cincinnati Reds. The game would be won on a home run off the left field foul pole at Fenway Park hit by Carlton Fisk in the bottom of the 12th inning, ending perhaps the greatest baseball game played in World Series history

• 1983, the metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second

• 1986 , in Lebanon, pro-Iranian kidnappers, practitioners of that “religion of peace” abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991)

• 1994, North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections

• 1996, the Dow Jones industrial average of 30 major stocks topped the 6,000 mark for the first time

• 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama announced the United States will withdraw all troops from Iraq at the end of the year and engage in a “normal relationship” with the nation. “After nearly nine years,” Obama said, “America’s war in Iraq will be over.”

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